Knowledge of Education

Protocolic Knowing How (to Do)

'Protocolic knowing how' is mental structures for doing, where one path to a goal is taken.


The following conditions must be met in order for a teacher (T) to determine that a student (S) knows how to do the protocolic performance, P:

S knows how to do the protocol P if and only if

    1. S has the capacity for doing P. 
    2. S has the facility for doing P. 
    3. S smoothly executes P. 
    4. P is a single-pathed doing. 
    5. T knows that the above conditions hold for doing P.

(George Maccia, cited in Frick [1997, p. 116]).

See Frick (1997), protcolic procedures and performances. Note that 'protocolic procedural' knowing is ommitted here.

Maccia (1987), Frick (1997), Greenspan and Benderly (1997) and Estep (2003; 2006) have argued that the mind-body distinction is fallacious (i.e., cognitive vs. psycho-motor vs. affective in Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives). Immediate awareness is required for know-how.

See Maccia (1988), Genetic Epistemology of Intelligent Natural Systems: Propositional, Procedural, and Performative Intelligence.

See also kinds of knowing.