Creative Knowing How (to Do)

'Creative knowing how' is mental structures for innovating a new path to reach an existing goal, or inventing a new path to reach a new goal.


The following conditions must be met in order for a teacher (T) to determine that a student (S) knows how to create:

S knows how to create P if and only if

  1. S has the capacity for doing P. 
  2. S has the facility for doing P. 
  3. S smoothly executes constituents and succession of either:
    1. innovative movements into some performance Pn when P includes Pn , and Pn is not equivalent to P, or
    2. inventive movements of P1, 2, ... n into P2 where P1, 2, ... n are elements of P and P2 is not included in P.
  4. P is a novel doing. 

(adapted from George Maccia, cited in Frick [1997, p. 116]).

See Frick (1997), innovative and creative know how. Note that the terms 'creative' and 'inventive' have been reversed, with 'creative' now being the superclass that includes 'innovative' and 'inventive' know-how.

See also Maccia (1988), Genetic Epistemology of Intelligent Natural Systems: Propositional, Procedural, and Performative Intelligence.