For an overview of complexity of mental structures, see Bertolero & Bassett (2019), Scientific American: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-the-mind-emerges-from-the-brains-complex-networks/.
Venn diagram representation of learning and education from Frick (2017), Theory of Totally Integrated Education. Adapted from Steiner (1988), Methodology of Theory Building, Schemas 2 and 3, pp. 16-17. Graphic design by Colin Gray and Ted Frick.
This definition of learning is consistent with what Kandel (1989) has concluded on a biological level, claiming that long-term memory is “associated with growth in synaptic connections [among neurons]” (p. 115), and that “learning produces enduring changes in structure and function of synapses” (p. 121).
Steiner further classified learning as:
Compare learning with forgetting.