Something is 'intrinsically good' if it is good in itself (as an end itself), not with respect to its instrumental goodness--not what it is good for (not as a means to an end).
Intrinsic goodness cannot be established by sensory observation; that is, it cannot be based on what exists (Steiner, 1988, p. 25). Reasoning based on fundamental principles or maxims should instead be used to determine intrinsic value. For example, Immanuel Kant (1785) provided the categorical imperative as a fundamental maxim:
Naturalistic fallacies must be avoided. Just because something currently exists does not mean that it has intrinsic value. Nor should we rely solely on authority. Just because someone else tells us what is intrinsically valuable, does not necessarily mean it is so. To be free and to be rational, we must instead reason from justifiable criteria (see criterial knowing that).
Examples of criteria (or norms):
- Autonomy (freedom)
- Respect for others
Determination of worthwhile goals of education should be part of philosophical educology. For example, in Educology of the Free, Steiner (1981) argued that students should become rational and therefore autonomous.
- Philosophy of education is concerned with what is worthwhile, that which has intrinsic value.
- Praxiology of education is concerned with means that are generally effective in reaching ends.
- Science of education is concerned with non-axiological, empirical relationships.